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Political Environment


A. Political Institutions


India is a Federal Republic country practicing socialism with federal cabinet system. It is implementing the separation of powers.


(A). Administration System

行政分中央,州政府及地方政府三級,中央由總統,副總統,總理及部長理事會組成,州共有Andhra等28州及Andaman & Nicobar ,Pondicherry等7個中央直轄區(union territories)組成.

The administrative system in India consists of 3 levels, which includes central government, state government and local government. The central government is comprised of the president, the vice president, the prime minister and the council of ministers. There are altogether 28 states including Andhra and there are 7 central union territories including Andaman & Nicobar, Pondicherry.


(B). Legislation System


The Legislative Authority in India follows the British parliamentary system. It comprises:

(1)聯邦院(上院Rajya Sabha) (2)人民院(下院Lok Sabha )

(A)House of Federal (the House of Lords Rajya Sabha) (B) House of the People (the House of Commons)


(C). Judicial System


The judicial organization comprises three levels as bellows:

(1)最高法院(Supreme Court) (2)高等法院(High Court) (3)地方法院(District Court) 院,為各該州高等法院的下屬機構,分民事庭及刑事庭(Session Court).

a. Supreme Court b. High Court c. District Court. District court is the subordinate institution belonging the High Court of each state. It is composed of Civil Court and Criminal Court (Session Court)


B. Important Party

印度各地共約有100個全國,地方級的大小不一的政黨,主要政黨包括國大黨(Congress),印度人民黨(Bhartiya Janata Party, BJP)及印度共黨產(Communist Party of India, CPI).傳統上印度個有強大的反對黨,反對黨領袖在國會上有其重要的地位,前執政的BJP現為最大反對黨.

There are altogether about 100 different scale Parties in India, mainly including the Congress, the Bhartiya Janata Party, BJP and Communist Party of India, CPI. Traditionally there is a powerful opposition Party in India. The leader of opposition Party plays an important role in the Congress. BJP, the previous governing Party currently is the biggest opposition Party.